Black Political Participation in America

Political Science 326


Dr. Floyd W. Hayes, III Office: LAEB 2254

Spring 1995 Office Hours: MF 2:30-5:00 p.m., and LAEB 1254 by appointment
Purdue University
MWF 12:30-1:20 p. m. Telephone: 494-2785

"It there is no struggle there is no progress....Power concedes nothing without a demand. It never did and it never will." ---Frederick Douglass

"Our emphasis must be on cultural transformation: destroying dualism, eradicating systems of domination." ---bell hooks

"The essence of leadership in any polity is the recognition of real need, the uncovering ;and exploiting of contradictions among values and between values, the reorganization of institutions where necessary, and the governance of change." ---James MacGregor Burns

Purpose of the Course

The broad purpose of this course is to enable students to think, converse, and write intelligently, analytically, and critically about African political development in the United States from the nineteenth century to the present. Toward this end, the course will analyze political culture, socialization, and mobilization with a focus on trends in the interaction between African Americans and institutions, processes, policies, and other actors that comprise the American system of politics and governance. Taking into account internal differences of class, gender, and region, the course will examine the position of African Americans in terms of politics, economics, and culture. We will be attentive to trends, developments, and future challenges regarding the African American situation at both national and local levels of analysis.

The course will apply an historical or developmental approach to the study of African American political life. That is, we will use aspects of history to enrich, deepen, and reveal new avenues for thought and analysis of contemporary political dynamics. The investigation of political culture and practice cannot be divorced from the concrete and objective circumstances that have shaped their development. From the period of the slave trade and chattel slavery to the mid-1960s, American political and social institutions and their policies (public and private) subordinated black people and largely excluded them from the formal processes of political participation and policy-making. Correspondingly, African Americans resorted to various strategies and tactics of social change and resistance, including violent revolt, mass protest, accommodation, cooperation, and acquiescence. Significantly, from the 1940s to the late 1960s, the civil rights struggle and subsequent civil rights legislation set in motion the progressive ascendancy of black elected officials and political administrators, particularly in urban areas where the African American population increasingly has come to be concentrated. We will investigate these developments, together with the impact of the Civil Rights movement and later Black Power struggle on the real life conditions southern, northern, and urban black communities. We will study the politics of urban policy making and the continuing significance of urban impoverishment. In view of the increasing interaction between racial and sexual politics, we will probe the controversial nomination of Clarence Thomas to the United States Supreme Courts and its significance to black political life in the present Age of Conservatism. Finally, we will explore rap music and hip hop culture as elements of black cultural politics in the contemporary post-industrial/post-modern period.

Required Texts (All texts can be purchased at Von's Books on State Street.)

Barker, Lucius J. and Mack H. Jones. 1994. African Americans and the American Political System. 3rd. Ed. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

Button, James W. 1989. Blacks and Social Change: Impact of the Civil Rights Movement in Southern Communities. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Clavel, Pierre, and Wim Wiewel. Eds. 1991. Harold Washington and the Neighborhoods: Progressive City Government in Chicago. 19831987. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

Massey, Douglas S., and Nancy A. Denton. 1993. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Morrison, Toni. Ed. 1992. Racing Justice, Engendering Power: Essays on Anita Hill. Clarence Thomas, and the Construction of Social Reality, New York: Pantheon Books.

Rose, Tricia. 1994. Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America. Hanover: Wesleyan University Press/University Press of New England.

Course Requirements and Evaluation Criteria

1. Intensive Reading and Active Class Participation
2. Research/Term Paper Outline
3. MidTerm Examination
4. Annotated Bibliography
5. Research/Term Paper
6. Final Examination

Grading Scale

A 100-90

B 89-80

C 79-60

D 59-50

F 49 & below

Assignments: Reading, Writing, Thinking, and Speaking are Fundamental.

You are expected to read thoroughly and think seriously about all assignments before coming to class and be prepared to discuss them effectivelv in class. Indeed, this course will emphasize the interaction between my lectures and your active discussion; student instructor dialogue will be the major pedagogical strategy employed in this class. Therefore, you should develop personal syntheses of lectures, class discussions, and readings.

This course will test your ability to integrate these three bodies of knowledge and to communicate this learning both through speaking and writing. Hence, simply memorizing isolated facts and regurgitating them are insufficiently in regard to class discussions, examinations, the research paper, and grading. My intent is to challenge you to demonstrate the ability to think analytically, independently, and critically about the subject matter of this course. The aim is to encourage you to formulate and defend arguments thoughtfully, intelligently, and persuasively. At times we may contest the interpretation of our texts' authors. Political, social, economic, and cultural issues are complex and complicated, allowing for differing and competing explanations. Thus, I urge you to forego the usual anxiety about always having to discover and present the "right" answer to questions posed. Multiple and competing explanations or interpretations may be more appropriate than a single all encompassing one. Our task, in the final analysis, is to develop the ability to think, speak, and write intelligently and critically about African American political life, particularly, and the American system of politics and governance, generally. This is a formula for changing ourselves and for changing society.

The character of class dialogue enhances the process of learning about political life. Political dialogue also encourages the development and refinement of skills needed to practice political knowledge in complex and diverse social settings the ability to keep an open mind, to stand in another person's shoes, to make decisions with others, and to make compromises while maintaining integrity. Ideas should be openly discussed and debated so that people can choose which ones they will endorse or reject. Hence, it is important that all class members actively participate in class discussions. To accomplish these objectives, study teams of about three students will be assigned the responsibility of leading discussion and analysis of the required reading approximately twice during the semester. You summarize key ideas, themes, and issues; raise questions for further discussion and analysis; provide constructive criticism when appropriate; demonstrate the interrelationship between and among reading assignments; describe and explain causes and effects of public problems emanating from the reading and suggest ways of handling or solving these problems. Dialogical practice, then, can result in problem identification and handling, policy suggestions and changes, and societal renewal and social development.

As this course suggests, we live in a period of rapid, uncertain, and often chaotic change. My educational philosophy is both simple and complex, drawing strongly from The Hidden Curriculum by Benson R. Snyder: "We are confronted with the necessity of educating students without either the students or their education becoming obsolete." I view education as a struggle for knowledge, wisdom, and understanding in order to prepare for the future. Therefore, I will challenge you not so much to agree or disagree with me as to grow intellectually, personally, and socially

Examinations will be take home exercises that must be typed/word processed. They will include essay and short answer questions. In addition, you are required to undertake a substantial research project that will result in a term/research paper that is related specifically to African American political life. Your paper should be typed/word processed and double spaced. The text of your paper must be no less than fifteen (15) pages long (excluding the title page and reference/endnote/bibliography page(s). I have attached to this syllabus a model title page and a list of elements (research design) your paper should include. In preparation for completing your project, you are expected to prepare and submit a detailed outline of your paper and an annotated bibliography, related to your paper's subject, of not fewer than ten (10) sources mainly from scholarly books, academic journals, or journals of opinion. I will hand out the format for your annotated bibliography at a later date. I want to meet with each of you as you select your research project. Moreover, I want to encourage you to feel free to discuss with me the course, your work, goals, or related matters. I consider my office hours to be a special time reserved for you. However, if the posted time is inconvenient for you, please do not hesitate to make an appointment.

Effective and intelligent writing is important, and improving writing skills needs to be a continuing process in our increasingly knowledge dependent and communications intensive society. I place tremendous importance on good writing. Therefore, along with content, I shall evaluate all written assignments on the basis of proper organization, logical development, good grammar, correct spelling and punctuation, and neatness. After preparing a draft of your written assignments, you should read, revise, and edit them with the above mentioned pointers in mind. This means that you should carefully proofread the final copy of your work before handing it in to me. All assignments. are due on time; I will deduct a full grade for each day that an assignment is handed in late. Remember that good writing is a result of hard work and practice. There are resources available to assist you such as Purdue University's Writing Lab. Take advantage of it if you need to. I strongly suggest that every university student own a dictionary as well as a good writing handbook. There are numerous writing guides. I find the following ones quite helpful.

Baker, Sheridan, The Practical Stylist, New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company.

Becker, Howard S., Writing for Social Scientists: How to Start and Finish Your Thesis, Book, or Article. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Gibaldi, Joseph and Walter S. Achtert, MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, New York: Modern Language Association of America.

Kane, Thomas S., The New Oxford Guide to Writing, New York: Oxford University Press.

Schmidt, Diane E., Expository Writing in Political Science: A Practical College Publishers.

Turabian, Kate L., A Manual for Writers of Term Papers. Theses, and Dissertations, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.


Section A: Introduction

M Jan. 9 Purpose of the Course, Overview, and Expectations

Readings, Assignments, and the Importance of Study/Discussion Teams

W Jan. 11 The University Experience and the Dialogical Method: Student Knowledge and Expectations. Students and Professors as Co-learners, and Strategies for Intellectual Growth and Academic Advancement

F Jan. 13 The Evolving Post-industrial Managerial Age and the Critical Importance of Education: Academic Excellence, Social Responsibility, and the Practice of Knowledge


Drucker, Peter F. 1993. Post-Capitalist Society. New York: HarperCollins.

Fernandez, John P. 1993. The Diversity Advantage. New York: Lexington Books.

Handy, Charles. 1989. The Age of Unreason. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Reich, Robert B. 1991. The Work of Nations: Preparing Ourselves for 21st Century Capitalism. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Toffler, Alvin. 1990. Powershift: Knowledge, Wealth. and Violence at the Edge of the 21st Century. New York: Bantam Books.


W Jan. 18 The Significance of African American Political Development; Theoretical Approaches to Studying African American Politics; Structures and Processes of Domination and Inequality in American Political Life

READ: Barker and Jones, Chap. I

F Jan. 20 Socioeconomic Trends and the African American Situation READ: Barker and Jones,

Chap. 2

M Jan. 23 Dynamics of American Political Culture
READ: Barker and Jones, Chap. 3

Section B: Engaging the American System of Politics and Governance

W Jan. 25 Electoral Politics and Resource Mobilization
READ: Barker and Jones, Chap. 4

F Jan. 27 Judicial Activism, Racial Politics, and Social Change
READ: Barker and Jones, Chap. 5

M Jan. 30 Judicial Politics in the Age of Reaganism
READ: Barker and Jones, Chap. 6

W Feb. 1 Social Movements and Political Change
READ: Barker and Jones, Chap. 7

F Feb. 3 African Americans and Party Politics
READ: Barker and Jones, Chap. 8

M Feb. 6 Congressional Politics and African Americans
READ: Barker and Jones, Chap. 9

W Feb. 8 Presidential Policy Making and the Limits of Black Politics
READ: Barker and Jones, Chap. 10

F Feb. 10 African American Political Development: Contradictions, Dilemmas, and Future Challenges
READ: Barker and Jones, Chap. 11

Section C: The Civil Rights Movement Revisited: Assessing its Political and Policy Impact in

Southern Localities

M Feb. 13 Analyzing the Politics of Social and Racial Change in the South: the Struggle Against

Racism, Segregation, and Exploitation
READ: Button, Chap. 1 and Appendices 2 and 3

Research Paper Outline Due

W Feb. 15 Racial Politics in Old Southern Communities
READ: Button, Chap. 2

F Feb. 17 Race and the Politics of Change in the New South
READ: Button, Chap. 3

M Feb. 20 The Struggle tor Local Service Delivery: Changes in Police and Fire Protection
READ: Button, Chap. 4

W Feb. 22 The Struggle for Public Services: Streets, Parks, and Recreation
READ: Button,

Chap. 5

F Feb. 24 The Struggle to Overturn Segregation: Public Accommodations and Employment Practices
READ: Button, Chap. 6

M Feb. 27 Evaluating the Impact of Southern Black Political Insurgency
READ: Button, Chap. 7

MidTerm Examination

Section D: Urban Public Policy and the Persistence of Socioeconomic and Racial Inequalitv: Housing Policy

W Mar. 1 Understanding Race and Poverty in America READ: Massey and Denton, Chap. I

F Mar. 3 Fashioning Impoverished Space in the City: The Political Management of Racial Segregation
READ: Massey and Denton Chap. 2


M Mar. 13 The Continuing Significance of Racial Segregation and Urban Impoverishment
READ: Massey and Denton, Chap. 3

W Mar. 15 Urban Racial Segregation Today: Causes
READ: Massey and Denton, Chap. 4

F Mar. 17 How American Apartheid Creates Impoverishment
READ: Massey and Denton, Chap. 5

M Mar. 20 Racial Segregation and the Persistence of Unwantedness
READ: Massey and Denton, Chap. 6

W Mar. 22 Popular Indifference and the Failure of Public Policy READ: Massey and Denton, Chap. 7

F Mar. 24 The Fate of the Unwanted in a Conservative Age
READ: Massey and Denton, Chap. 8

Section E: The Black Urban Regime: Progressive Governance in Harold Washington's Chicago

M Mar. 27 Chicago Politics and Community Development
READ: Clavel and Wiewel, Introduction
READ: Gills

Annotated Bibliography Due

W Mar. 29 Decentralized Development
READ: Mier and Moe

F Mar. 31 Policy Making and Community Participation
READ: Giloth

M Apr. 3 Planning and the Community
READ: Hollander

W Apr. 5 Human Services Reform READ: Walker

F Apr. 7 The Continuing Struggle for Progressive Urban Governance
READ: Wright

M Apr. 10 Progressive Urban Governance: An Evaluation
READ: Brehm
READ: Wiewel and Clavel

Section F: Racial/Sexual Politics and the Black Community: The U. S. Senate Confirmation of Judge Clarence Thomas to the U. S. Supreme Court

W Apr. 12
READ: Morrison
READ: Higginbotham

F Apr. 14
READ: Marable
READ: Painter

M Apr. 17
READ: Burnham

Research Paper Due

W Apr. 19
READ: Swain
READ: West

Section G: Black Cultural Practice and the Politics of Cultural Despair: Rap Music and the Critique of Contemporary Society

F Apr. 21
READ: Rose, Introduction and Chap. 1

M Apr. 24
READ: Rose, Chap. 2

W Apr. 26
READ: Rose, Chap. 4

F Apr. 28
READ: Rose, Chap. 5 and Epilogue

M May I Final Exam Due

(Model Title Page)

Black Political Leadership in Post-industrial Managerial Society: development at the Edge of the 21st Century

KiaLillian Nicole Hayes

Political Science 326

Black Political Participation in America


Dr. Floyd W. Hayes, 111

Department of Political Science

Purdue University


(Do not abbreviate)

Term/Research Paper Design

Your paper should contain the following elements:

1. Statement of the subject, theme, issue: what is your paper about?

2. Significance or importance of the subject, theme, issue.

3. Purpose for writing the paper: state clearly what you intend to do. Example: to describe, study, analyze, investigate document. examine, probe, compare, criticize, explore, explain. etc.

4. Problem: in regard to your subject, what problem or question are you dealing with or answering ?

5. Review of related literature.

6. Thesis: what is your thesis, theory or argument? If you are employing a theory or testing a theory derived from your research, indicate the author or source. Alternatively, you may be attempting to clarify ambiguities in competing theories. State them and your synthesis or alternative to them. Introduce and define key theoretical concepts.

7. Method of analysis: empirical. statistical, etc.? I strongly suggest a developmental method which contains the following elements:

a. Note trends, developments, and future challenges related to your subject (including data: empirical, statistical, case studies, interpretative, etc.);

b. Expose contradictions, logical inconsistencies, problems, stereotyping, or myth making in your subject;

c. Pose dilemmas, ambiguities, paradoxes. or self-fulfilling prophecies that emerge as a result of contradictions;

d. Construct positive alternatives to the above.

8. Scope and limitations of your paper. You cannot cover everything; paper. Limit your discussion to a subject you can handle comfortably. otherwise, you may end up with a running commentary that rambles on and on but says very little of substance.

9. Your vegetation and/or policy recommendations if necessary.

10. Summary and or conclusion.

11. Endnotes and/or references cited (consult writing guide for correct form).

12. Pages must he numbered.

NOTE: Take time to consult scholarly journal articles. They are excellent models for preparing good research papers.