African Americans and Leadership: Community, Strategy, and Transformation

Dr. Floyd W. Hayes, III
Purdue University

Fall 1992

Purpose of this Course

The broad purpose of this course is to examine critically the protection between African Americans leadership and social change in the United States of America. We will analyze leadership tasks and accountability, strategies and constraints, power and decision making, intra-elite tensions and dilemmas, ethics and leadership styles, and organization and resource mobilization in the African American struggle for social development and human right. Utilizing a developmental and trans-disciplinary approach, we will probe the character and dynamics of political, religious, student, intellectual, and literary leadership. It is hoped that as a byproduct of this course, students also will benefit from learning practical leadership skills and tasks that can enhance their personal lives.

Because of a variety of historical circumstances, African American leadership generally can be viewed as transforming. As a result of historic and present structures of cultural, political, and economic domination, the great multitude of African Americans have sought to ( re)fashion a collective identity with community solidarity and to transform American society. Their aim has been to bring about a society that would privilege and empower a view of democratic civic and cultural life in America's multi-cultural society. In the process, women and men emerged to give vision, voice, and direction to the struggle for African American survival and salvation: (1) personal worth and human dignity; (2) family stability, parental control over their children's destiny, and community solidarity; (3) quality education, intellectual empowerment, and cultural integrity; (4) economic self-sufficiency, hard work, and collective well being; and (5) political rights and self-determination. Significantly, constraints of cultural domination and a consequent power deficit have posed serious problems for African American leadership. This reality has affected the character and dynamics of leadership options, ideas, strategies, and resource mobilization. These contradictions have given rise to further dilemmas regarding African American leadership and organizational/institutional cultures: stability/instability, continuity/discontinuity, and flexibility/inflexibility. These are matters of growing importance in the emerging post-modern/post-industrial managerial age of complexity, uncertainty, cynicism, and interdependence.

Required Texts

Carson, Clayborne, In Struggle SNCC & the Black Awakening, in the 1960s, Harvard University Press, 1981.

Cone, James H., Martin & Malcolm & America: A Dream or A Nightmare, Maryknol: Orbis Books, 1991.

Cruse, Harold, The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual, William Morrow, 1967.

Gates, Henry L., Jr., ed., Reading Black, Reading Feminist: A Critical Anthology, New York: A Meridian Book, 1990.

Giddings, Paula, When and Where I Enter: The Impact of Black Women on Race and Sex in America. New York William Morrow, 1984.

Harlan, Louis R., Booker T. Washington: The Wizard of Tuskegee, 1901 1915, New York: Oxford University Press, 1983

Marable, Manning, W. E. B. DuBois: Black Radical Democrat, Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1986.

Martin, Tony, Race First: The Ideological And Organizational Struggles of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association, Westport: Greenwood Press, 1976.

Martin, Waldo E., Jr., The Mind of Frederick Douglass, Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1984.

Morris, Aldon, The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement: Black communities Organizing for Change, New York: The Free Press.

Good writing is Important and improving writing skills should be a continuing process. I encourage you to obtain and use a good writing handbook. There are numerous writing guilds; I find the following ones quite helpful. Get the latest edition note: I recommend these aids; I do not require them. ).

Baker, Sheldon, The Practical Stylist, New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company.

Howard S. Becker, Writing for Social Scientists, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Gibaldi, Joseph and Walter S. Achtert, MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, New York: The Modern Language Association of America.

Strunk, William and E. B. White, The Elements of Style, New York: The Macmillan Company.

Turabian, Kate L., A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, Chicago The University of Chicago Press.

Zinsser, William, On Writing Well: An Informal Guide to Writing Nonfiction, New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc.

Zinsser, William, Writing to Learn, New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc.


Aug. 28: Introduction: Purpose of Course, General Overview, Assignments, and Expectations

African American Leadership in a Transitional Age: Crisis and Opportunity--The Demand for Intelligence, Information, and Ideas Demand for Intelligence, Information, and Ideas

Sept. 4: Theoretical Approaches to this Study of Leadership
READ: James B. Chills, "Two World Views," in Leadership, Conflict, and Cooperation in Afro-American Social Thought. Philadelphia Temple University Press, 1989, pp. 39.

READ: Angela Y. Davis, "Let Us Rise Together: Radical Perspectives on Empowerment for Afro-American Women, in Woman, Culture, & Politics, New York: Random House, 1989, pp.1- 15.

READ: James M. Burns, "Toward a General Theory," in Leadership, New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1978, pp. 422-443.

READ Clarence N. Stone, "Paradigms, Power, and Urban Leadership, in Bryan D. Jones, ed., Leadership Political New Perspectives in Political Science, Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1989, pp. 135- 159.

Supplemental Reading:

Bernard M. Bass, Leadership land Performance Beyond Expectations, New York: The Free Press, 1985.

Warren Bennis, On Becoming a Leader, Reading Addison-Wesley Publishing Cornpany, Inc., 1989.

Alvin W. Gouldner, This Future of Intellectuals and this Rise of this New Class, New York: The Seabury Press, 1979.

Charles Handy, The Age of Unreason, Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1989.

Manfred F. R. Kets de Vries and Danny Miller, The Neurotic Organization, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1984.

Henry Mintzberg, Power in and Around Organizations, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1983.

Hedrick Smith, The Power Game: How Washington Works, New York: Random House, 1988.

Sept. 1 1: Frederick Douglass: Humanist as Race Leader

READ: Martin, The Mind of Fredrick Douglass

Sept. 18: Black Women's Leadership and Social Changes: Lift as We Climb READ: Giddings, When and Where I Enter

Sept. 25 Booker T. Washington: Black Enigma READ: Harland, Booker T. Washington

Oct. 2: W. E. B. DuBois: An Activist Intellectual READ: Marable, W. E. B. DuBois: Black Radical Democrat

Oct 9: Marcus Garvey: Black Nationalist and Mass Organizer Martin, Race First

Oct. 16: African American Intellectual Leadership: The Crisis of Purple

READ: Cruse, The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual

Oct. 23 The Organizational Basis of the Civil Rights Movement
READ: Morris, The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement

Oct. 30: Martin Luther King, Jr.: Apostle of Non-Violence; Malcolm X: Messenger from the Grassroots--Comparative Analysis
READ: Cone, Martin & Malcolm & America

Nov. 6 Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee: From Integration to Black Power

READ: Carson, In Struggle

Nov. 13: Jesse Jackson: The Crisis of Political Leadership in the Post-Civil Rights Era
READ: Read, The Jesse Jackson Phenomenon

Nov. 20: African American Women and Intellectual/Literary Leadership: Refashioning the Canon
READ: Gates, Reading Black . Reading Feminist